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1.12 Crafts and Services

Vice President of Business Affairs

Office of Environmental, Health, Safety & Hazardous Waste

Posted On: July 31, 2013 |


  1. To provide general safe work practices for crafts and services personnel as a way of controlling hazards and doing jobs with a minimum of risk to people and property.


  1. Craft and service supervisors are responsible to ensure the application of appropriate safe work practices while their personnel are working.


  1.   Supervisors, as well as, personnel must comply with all pertinent polices, procedures, rules, instructions, laws, and regulations to protect their health and safety.
  2.   Personnel are encouraged to play an active role in identifying hazards in the workplace and offering suggestions to improve the health and safety program.

Compressed Gas Cylinders

  1. Compressed gas cylinders are dangerous by the very fact that their contents are under pressure.
    1.   In addition, many gases are flammable, explosive, or toxic.
    2.   Proper handling and care is a priority for a safe work site.
  2.   Cylinders are to be properly labeled with the name of their contents and handling instructions.
  3.   The proper handling of cylinders include:
    1.   Keep cylinders upright during transport, storage, or use.
    2.   Move cylinders on a hand truck or dolly.
      1.   Never hoist cylinders by their collar.
      2.   Do not drop cylinders or let them bang into one another.
    3.   When a job is finished, close the cylinder valves and replace the protective caps.
    4.   Secure cylinders with wire or chain to keep them upright.
    5.   Never transport cylinders in the trunk of a vehicle or in a closed van.
      1.   Escaping gas can create the risk of an explosion or asphyxiation.
    6.   Keep valves closed and cylinders capped when not in use.
    7.   Remove gauges and other attachments before moving cylinders.
    8.   Store cylinders away from heat and ignition sources, flammable materials and areas such as elevators and traffic routes where they can be knocked over or damaged.
    9.   Keep empty and full cylinders separate.
    10.   Do not store cylinders of different gases in the same area.

Electrical Safety

  1. Personnel should conduct a worksite survey and implement control measures to address the hazards at the site.
  2.   The best defense against electrical accidents is the continuous exercising of good judgment and commonsense.
  3.   When work is performed on electrical equipment, some basic procedures include:
    1.   Have equipment de-energized.
      1.   Ensure equipment is de-energized by using lockout/tagout (LOTO).
      2.   Use grounding lines when required.
      3.   Use insulated tools and equipment for the job.
      4.   Keep a safe distance from energized parts.
      5.   Do not operate equipment around overhead power lines unless you are authorized and trained to do so.
        1.   Trained personnel should be present to monitor the distance and warn equipment operators if the minimum distance is not maintained.
      6.   Never touch an overhead line if it is brought down by machinery or has fallen.
        1.   Never assume that lines are “dead”.
      7.   Never touch a person who has come into contact with a live power line.
      8.   Tools used by employees should be designed and constructed to withstand the voltages and stresses to which they are exposed.
      9.   Use proper personal protective equipment for the job that is to be performed.
        1.   These may include insulating gloves, hoods, sleeves, matting, blankets, etc.
        2.   Items should be inspected prior to use.
      10.   The use of non-conductive wooden or fiberglass ladders is recommended while working near overhead power lines.
  4.   General requirements for the use of extension cords include:
    1.   Cords shall be placed and guarded so they will not become a tripping hazard or get damaged.
    2.   Cords shall not be hung over nails, bolts, or sharp edges.
    3.   Cords shall be rated for the expected voltage load.
  5.   For wet locations, a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) shall be used in conjunction with any equipment or extension cord.

Fall Protection

  1.   Fall protection is a general term for any means of ensuring that a worker is not injured from a fall.
    1.   It could include a combination of steps or procedures along with equipment of prevent falling or limit the possibility of injury in case of a fall.
    2.   Fall protection can include a harness, net, rope, structure or other device or equipment used as a means for restraining a person at risk for falling.
  2.   Fall protection should be used when there is a hazard of falling from 10 feet or more; or, when there is the danger of falling onto a surface that could cause injury upon contact; or, when there is the danger of falling into an open pit, tank, or vat.

Power Tools

  1. Understand the use of the tool.
    1.   Read the owner’s manual.
    2.   Be familiar with the tool’s limitations.
  2.   Use grounded and/or double insulated tools.
    1.   Do not remove the grounding prong.
  3.   Survey the worksite for possible hazards.
    1.   Know what is below the surface of the work before cutting, drilling, or penetrating the surface in any way.
  4.   Wear proper apparel and personal protective equipment for the job.
    1.   Do not wear loose clothing, dangling objects, or jewelry.
    2.   Always wear eye or eye/face protection.
    3.   Wear hearing protection, when applicable.
  5.   Periodic inspections of power tools shall be performed.
    1.   Defective equipment shall be taken out of service until repairs are made.

Compressed Air

  1. Follow the manufacturer’s general instructions and comply with the recommended safety requirements for air- powered tools.
    1.   Read the owner’s manual.
  2.   Ensure that air pressure has been turned off and line pressure relieved before disconnecting the hose or changing tools.
  3.   Hoses should be checked before use for cuts, bulges or other damage.
    1.   Defective hoses should be replaced before use.
  4.   A proper pressure regulator and relief device should be in the system to ensure correct desired pressure is maintained.
  5.   Equipment must be properly maintained according to the manufacturer’s requirements.
  6.   Wear appropriate personal protective equipment.
  7.   Compressed air must not be used to blow debris or to clean dirt from any worker’s clothes.


  1.   Scaffolds shall be erected by a competent person.
    1.   Legislative and manufacturer’s requirements shall be complied with.
  2.   Scaffold type, capable of withstanding the loads imposed on it, must be determined before the job begins.
  3.   Provide safe access and egress to both the scaffold and the general work area.


  1.   Ladders should be inspected before use.
    1.   If defective, it should be tagged out. Repairs should take place before returning it to service.
  2.   Ladders should be used on clean, level surfaces.
  3.   No work should be done from the top two steps of ladders.
  4.   A stepladder is only to be used in the fully opened position with spreader bars locked.
  5.   Positioning of an extension ladder should follow the 4:1 run/rise ratio.
  6.   Do not overreach while on a ladder.
    1.   Climb down and move the ladder to a new position.

Welding, Cutting, Burning

  1.   Check the work area for flammable and /or combustible materials before starting any welding, cutting, or burning operations.
    1.   Take the appropriate steps to make the area safe for these operations to take place.
  2.   Have firefighting equipment on hand.
    1.   Welders should never work alone. A person designated as a fire watch should be present during work.
  3.   Ensure that adequate ventilation is supplied during welding, cutting, or burning.
  4.   Protect cables and/or hoses from slag or spark.
  5.   Never enter, weld, cut, or burn in a confined space without first doing proper testing and having a required attendant.
  6.   While working overhead, fire resistant materials such as blankets and tarps should be used to control and contain slag and spark.
  7.   Cylinder valves should be opened slowly.

Abrasive Wheels

  1. Personnel should be familiar with grinding operations before starting work.
    1.   Read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions and safety recommendations.
  2.   Ensure that the proper equipment guards are in place and the proper personal protective equipment (PPE) is used.
  3.   Do not exceed the maximum wheel speed.
    1.   Check the speed marked on the wheel and compares it to the speed on the grinder.
  4.   Before grinding, run the newly mounted wheel at operating speed to check for vibration before using.
  5.   Do not use the grinder for jobs for which it is not designed, such as cutting.
  6.   Grinders should be inspected before each use.
    1.   Defective units should be tagged out of service and repaired prior to use.


  1.   Protection from trench cave-in should be provided if the trench is more than 4 feet deep.
    1.   Three basic methods of protection include:
      1.   Sloping
      2.   Shoring
      3.   Trench Box
  2.   Ladders must be provided in areas protected by shoring or trench boxes.
    1.   Ladders should be placed no more than 25 feet apart in the trench and securely tied off at the top.

Material Handling

  1. Avoid injury by lifting and carrying objects correctly, both manually and by using mechanical aids.
  2.   Dollies, hand trucks, and forklifts may help in the transport of materials that are either too heavy or bulky to move manually.
  3.   Wear recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) for the job.
  4.   Only trained and authorized personnel should operate powered hand trucks and forklifts.
  5.   To prevent material handling accidents and injuries:
    1.   Be alert for hazards.
    2.   Take your time.
    3.   Get help or use mechanical assistance when in doubt.
    4.   Wear protective equipment.
    5.   Know what others in the area are doing.
    6.   Let others know what you are doing.

Hazard Communication

  1. Chemicals may present physical and/or health hazards.
    1.   Read container labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS) to identify hazards and methods of protection.
  2.   Container labels and SDS provide valuable information such as manufacturer, chemical identity, physical and chemical characteristics, physical and health hazards, routes of entry, exposure limits, safe handling and control measures, personal protective equipment and emergency procedures and first aid.

Color Coding

  1.   Color-coding is used extensively for safety purposes.
    1.   In summary, color is used as follows:
      1.   RED – fire equipment; danger; emergency shut off
      2.   YELLOW – hazardous
      3.   GREEN – first aid; safety equipment
      4.   BLACK/WHITE – housekeeping; traffic markings.
      5.   ORANGE – pinch points; energized equipment
      6.   BLUE – informational signs not of safety nature
      7.   MAGENTA – radiation hazard

Fire Protection

  1. Practice good housekeeping to keep fuels away from heat sources.
    1.   Dispose of waste promptly and properly.
    2.   Keep work areas free from dust and lint.
    3.   Keep flammable and combustible materials away from ignition sources.
  2.   Identify and take precautions with flammable substances.
    1.   Check labels and MSDS.
    2.   Clean up spills and leaks immediately.
    3.   Keep flammable liquids in approved airtight metal containers that are closed when not in use.
    4.   Ground containers during liquid transfers to prevent static electricity.
    5.   Use flammable liquids only in well-ventilated areas.
  3.   Use and maintain electrical equipment properly.
  4.   Prevent fires from chemical reactions.
    1.   Do not use of store incompatible substances together.
      1.   Read and follow instructions on chemical label and MSDS.
  5.   Know the location and proper use of fire alarms and fire extinguishers.

Lockout/Tagout (LOTO)

  1. Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) for servicing or maintaining equipment is necessary to prevent sudden release of energy, thereby protecting personnel for serious injury or death.
    1.   Lockout is the placement of a lock device on an energy-isolating device to ensure that the equipment cannot be operated during equipment maintenance or repair.
    2.   Tagout is the placement of a tag device on an energy-isolating device to warn of the danger of operating, and to not start, the equipment until the tag is properly removed.
    3.   LOTO is performed only by an authorized employee, one who is made responsible for the lockout/tagout of machinery or equipment.
      1.   Employees whose job requires them to operate/use or be in the area of machinery or equipment on which service/maintenance is being performed is considered an affected employee. He/she must be notified prior to LOTO.
    4.   Locks are color-coded:
      1.   Red – Electricians
      2.   Blue – HVAC
      3.   Gold – All other crafts
      4.   Black – Facilities/Outside contract work
    5.   Should LOTO work be performed by an outside contractor, the overseeing University contract coordinator shall ensure that the contractor has its own LOTO program.
  2.   Lockout/Tagout involves:
    1.   Shutting off and locking out electricity.
    2.   Releasing and locking out energy.
    3.   Draining and locking out material.
  3.   Steps to a safe lockout include:
    1.   Prepare for shutdown
      1.   Identify energy hazards
      2.   Locate control devices
    2.   Notify affected employees.
    3.   Turn off equipment.
    4.   Isolate all energy sources.
      1.   Electrical
      2.   Pneumatic
      3.   Hydraulic
      4.   Mechanical
    5.   Release any stored energy.
    6.   Lock out switches or other energy controls.
    7.   Test the operating controls.
    8.   Check circuits and electrical parts to make sure they are de-energized.
    9.   Perform necessary service or maintenance.
  4.   Release from Lockout/Tagout
    1.   Inspect work area to ensure non-essential items have been removed and equipment components are intact.
    2.   Make sure all employees have been safely positioned or removed from the area.
    3.   Lockout/tagout devices are removed by the authorized employee who placed them on the equipment or under the direction of the employer should the authorized employee be unavailable.
    4.   Equipment is re-energized and returned to service.
  5.   Training
    1.   Authorized employees should receive training from their supervisor on LOTO on an annual basis.
    2.   Affected employees should received training from their supervisor on LOTO every three years.
    3.   Documentation of training should be kept by the craft supervisor doing the training and should be available to the University’s EHS Officer for review on an annual basis.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  1. Personal protective equipment is designed to protect personnel against physical and health hazards in the workplace.
    1.   The procurement of personal protective equipment (PPE) is the duty of each department head, dean,or supervisor of the University.
      1.   A hazard assessment should be made to determine the appropriate PPE for use by the employees of that department. The University’s EHS Officer can be consulted to assist in this assessment.
    2.   Supervisors in each department are responsible for training their personnel in:
      1.   When to use PPE
      2.   What PPE to use
      3.   How to properly wear PPE
      4.   Proper storage of PPE
      5.   Inspecting and maintaining PPE
      6.   Proper disposal of damaged or contaminated PPE
  2.   Personnel should identify hazards associated with each job task and know:
    1.   What PPE to use and when
    2.   How to put on and take off PPE properly
    3.   The limitations of PPE
    4.   The proper care and disposal of PPE
  3.   PPE for eye protection guard against flying objects, splashes, vapors, fumes, and harmful light rays.
    1.   Various types of eye protection include:
      1.   Safety glasses
      2.   Goggles
      3.   Face shields
      4.   Shades against light rays
  4.   Protection is needed to prevent hearing loss.
    1.   Basic types of noise protectors are:
      1.   Ear muffs
      2.   Ear plugs
      3.   Canal caps
  5.   Use the right glove for hand protection:
    1.   Metal mesh to protect from cuts
    2.   Leather to protect against rough objects, chips, sparks, moderate heat
    3.   Cotton to protect against dust, splinters, slippery objects
    4.   Rubber, neoprene, vinyl to protect against chemicals
    5.   Insulated to protect against heat, cold
    6.   Latex to protect against Bloodborne pathogens, biohazards
  6.   Foot protection should include boots or shoes that protect against:
    1.   Sharp objects
    2.   Heavy objects
    3.   Chemicals
    4.   Cold
    5.   Slippery surfaces
  7.   Hard hats should be worn when there is a possibility of head injury due to impact, penetration, or electrical current.
  8.   Appropriate respirators should be worn to guard against hazardous dust, vapors, and gases.
    1.   Special testing and training is required before respirator use.

Document Details

Issue Date: 03/27/04
Review Date: 03/15/2021
Revision NO: 1.0
Revision Date: 03/15/2021
Revision Note: Revise reference to Safety Data Sheets